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Transportation Research Part F 56 (2018) 444–452
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Transportation Research Part F journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/trf
Dangerous driving propensity amongst Indian youth Guneet Singh Assi Road Safety Specialist, Consulting Engineers Group Ltd., Jaipur, Rajasthan, India
a r t i c l e
i n f o
Article history: Received 2 March 2017 Received in revised form 13 April 2018 Accepted 16 May 2018 Available online 1 June 2018 Keywords: Dangerous driving Sensation-seeking Impulsiveness India Youth
a b s t r a c t The aim of the present investigation was to study the role of sensation-seeking and impulsiveness in propensity towards dangerous driving. For this purpose, a sample of four hundred young drivers between the age group of 18–23 years was assessed on measures of sensation-seeking, impulsiveness and dangerous driving. The sample was further classified into male and female drivers. The constructs of sensation-seeking and impulsiveness were studied through their components or sub-scales. Therefore, sensation-seeking was assessed with its sub-scales of boredom susceptibility, experience seeking, disinhibition and thrill and adventure seeking while impulsiveness was gauged through attentional, motor and non-planning impulsiveness. The statistical analysis of correlation was performed to assess relationships amongst variables with stepwise multiple regression analysis for prediction of dangerous driving. The results of present investigation revealed positive correlations between all the variables assessed on the overall sample and amongst the groups of male and female drivers. Through regression analysis on the overall sample, disinhibition emerged to be the major predictor showing maximum variance followed by motor impulsiveness, attentional impulsiveness, non-planning impulsiveness and thrill and adventure seeking. Amongst male drivers, motor impulsiveness showed maximum variance for dangerous driving followed by disinhibition, attentional impulsiveness and non-planning impulsiveness. However, amongst female drivers, disinhibition was found to be the major predictor for dangerous driving having maximum variance followed by motor impulsiveness and attentional impulsiveness. The study gives a psychological insight into the dangerous driving behaviour of young drivers. These issues are therefore of grave concern especially for the drivers in India with its increasing young population, growing number of vehicles on roads, incidence of road rage, fatalities and like. Ó 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
1. Introduction The world stands in the middle of a crisis of an epidemic proportion. More than a million people die annually in road crashes globally. Every day nearly 3400 people lose their lives on the roads worldwide (World Health Organization, 2013). Road traffic fatality is the eighth leading cause of death globally and is estimated to become the fifth leading cause of death by 2030. Ninety percent of road traffic deaths occur in low-income and middle-income countries. India, which has 1% of global vehicle population, contributes towards 10% of global road traffic crashes. These crashes are the seventh
E-mail address: [email protected] https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trf.2018.05.016 1369-8478/Ó 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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leading cause of death in India with RTIs (road traffic injuries) making up to 78% of them (Krug, 1999). Road safety researchers have found certain contributory factors to road traffic crashes and have classified them into behavioural, environmental and vehicular failures (Sabey & Taylor, 1980). In majority of traffic related crashes, human error has been cited as a major causal factor which makes it imperative to study the driving behaviour of people. Road traffic injuries are the leading cause of death worldwide amongst young people aged 10–24 years. Begg and Langley (2001) and Shope (2006) reported that motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of deaths amongst drivers younger than 35 years of age and highlighted driving behaviour as a significant problem of public concern. Given the fact that youth have a propensity to take risk by speeding leading to road crashes (Elander, West, & French, 1993) tailgating, dangerous acceleration, and rapid lane changes (Jonah, 1986; Preusser, Ferguson, Williams, Leaf, & Farmer, 1998) amongst other factors, therefore young drivers were selected for the present study. The large number of vehicles on the roads has led to frequent congestion and growing incidence of road rage and dangerous driving, further leading to road traffic crashes, fatalities and injuries. The psychology of an individual in a driving context is quite under researched and underrated problem specifically in India (Chakraborty, Singh, Lal, & Tariq, 2009). Dangerous driving can be termed as any unsafe driving act that jeopardizes one’s own life or that of another road user. Due to lack of consensus on the terminology to be used for dangerous driving, much of the earlier work has focused on aggressive driving (Joint, 1995; Lajunen & Parker, 2001), with a variety of aggressive driving definitions being posited (Ellison-Potter, Bell, & Deffenbacher, 2001; Joint, 1995; Shinar, 1998). However, on deriving a common factor from all these definitions, it was found that all of them included aspects of behaviours and cognitive and/or emotional states that make the driving situation more dangerous. Dula and Geller (2004) highlighted the problem with defining driver aggression and pointed out aggression as being just one of the facets of dangerous driving. Dula and colleagues defined three major dangerous driving categories which included the intent to harm, negative cognitive/emotional experiences (such as anger, frustration, rumination) and risky driving (Dula & Ballard, 2003; Dula & Geller, 2004). On the basis of research done abroad, sensation-seeking and impulsiveness have been found to be the significant contributors of dangerous driving (Arnett, 1996; Furnham & Saipe, 1993). Sensation-seeking is defined as a tendency to seek varied novel, complex, and intense sensations, and the willingness to take physical, social, legal and financial risks for the sake of such experiences (Zuckerman, 1994). Impulsiveness on the other hand involves a tendency to act on a whim, displaying behaviour characterized by little or no forethought, reflection, or consideration of the consequences (VandenBos, 2007). Sensation-seeking is found to be positively related with speeding where individuals high on sensation-seeking are more likely to speed, overtake and use shortcuts while driving (Jonah, 1997). Thus, sensation-seeking is one of the personality dimensions quite significantly and positively related with dangerous driving practices. Impulsiveness also has been associated with a variety of dangerous driving behaviours like drunk driving, not wearing a seat belt, impaired behaviour and reduced ability to perceive traffic signs (Hansen & Breivik, 2001; Stanford, Greve, Boudreaux, Mathias, & Brumbelow, 1996). Hence, the positive and significant relationship between sensation-seeking, impulsiveness and dangerous driving amongst young drivers makes it all the more imperative to be studied. As sensation-seeking and impulsiveness have been found to be significant variables in dangerous driving, the present study aimed to find the components of these two measures which contribute the most to dangerous driving behaviour. 2. Hypothesis H1. Dangerous driving is expected to be positively correlated with boredom susceptibility, experience-seeking, disinhibition, thrill and adventure seeking, attentional, motor and non-planning impulsiveness for the overall sample and amongst both the groups of male and female drivers. H2. Boredom susceptibility, experience seeking, disinhibition, thrill and adventure seeking, attentional, motor and nonplanning impulsiveness are expected to significantly predict dangerous driving for the overall sample and amongst both the groups of male and female drivers.
3. Materials and method 3.1. Sample The subjects for this study were four hundred drivers in the age range of 18–23 years. The data was collected from various colleges of Chandigarh, Panchkula and Mohali (India). Purposive sampling was used where the researcher went to various colleges and conducted the study where permission was granted. The researcher had limited time for data collection, i.e. one month in which four hundred participants could be contacted conveniently. The questionnaires were designed to be filled during the participants’ classes. The students who met the inclusion criteria and were willing to participate in the study were recruited and were given the standardized questionnaires in groups. A deliberate attempt was made to recruit equal numbers of male and female drivers, i.e. 200 of each.
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The inclusion criteria were: having a valid driving license; aged between 18 and 23 years; rider of a two-wheeler or driver of a four-wheeler; and financially dependent on parent(s). Moreover, only those students who were willing to participate were included in the study. 3.2. Measures In order to collect relevant information for the study, various self-report measures were used. Table 1 also shows the list of variables used in the present study: 3.2.1. Dula dangerous driving index (DDDI) (Dula & Ballard, 2003) This is a 28 item questionnaire, used to assess self-reported dangerous driving behaviour amongst drivers. The DDDI demonstrates good internal consistency with total scale and subscale alpha coefficients ranging from .83 to .92 (Dula & Ballard, 2003). Evidence for concurrent, divergent, and predictive validity was also demonstrated (Dula & Ballard, 2003). It has three components, i.e. 1. Risky Driving (a = .83) which assesses the individual’s tendency to engage in risky driving behaviour, where there is no intent to harm the other road user but the action in itself poses risk to the driver, passengers in that vehicle and to the other road users; 2. Negative Cognitive/Emotional Driving (a = .85) assesses the tendency where the driver is cognitively occupied by negative emotions such as anger, hostility, vengeance and like. It is a tendency to ruminate or feel angry about other drivers on the road who may tend to provoke such negative emotions; 3. Aggressive Driving (a = .84) reflects driving behaviour intended to harm the other driver, or road users either physically or psychologically. The driver deliberately indulges in aggressive behaviour on road by physically attacking the other driver or psychologically intimidates him/her by insult or through rude and hostile gestures. 3.2.2. Sensation-seeking scale (Indian adaptation) (Basu, Verma, Malhotra, & Malhotra, 1993) Sensation-seeking (SS) has been defined as ‘‘the need for varied, novel and complex sensations and experiences and the willingness to take physical and social risks for the sake of such experiences” (Zuckerman, 1979). The original sensationseeking scale, form V (SSS-V) (Zuckerman, Eysenck, & Eysenck, 1978) is a 40-item choice inventory assessing the individual’s tendency to involve himself in novel and adventure-seeking activities. The scale used in this study is an Indian adaptation of Zuckerman’s sensation-seeking scale, form V. Like the original scale, this scale has four sub-scales to assess the four significant dimensions of sensation-seeking, i.e. 1. Thrill and Adventure Seeking (a = 0.66) which assesses an individual’s propensity to indulge in sports or activities involving some physical danger or risk-taking; 2. Experience Seeking (a = 0.76) which reflects an individual’s tendency to seek new experiences, often reflected through non-conforming life style with unconventional friends and travelling; 3. Boredom Susceptibility (a = 0.55): this reflects aversion towards monotonous, daily, dull or repetitive work, situations, events or people. 4. Disinhibition (a = 0.62): demonstrates a tendency to disinhibit one’s behaviour in the social sphere by drinking, partying and seeking variety in sexual partners. 3.2.3. Baratt’s impulsiveness scale (BIS-11) (Patton, Stanford, & Barratt, 1995) The Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (Version 11) is a 30 item self-report questionnaire that measures general impulsiveness and its dimensions since impulsiveness is a multi-factorial concept. As put forth by Patton et al. (Patton et al., 1995), ‘‘the [BIS-11] sub-factors are of primary value in helping define impulsiveness in general and exploring more subtle relationships between impulsiveness and different clinical syndromes.” Although this scale has first and second order factors, only the second-order factors were taken into consideration since the interest in these factors has steadily increased amongst researchers (Stanford et al., 2009). This scale has three second-order factors, i.e. 1. Attentional Impulsiveness (a = .74) measures an individual’s inability to focus attention which reflects cognitive instability that involves making quick decisions, like
Table 1 Summary of variables used in the present study. S.No.
Variables
Definition
1 2
Dangerous Driving (DD) Thrill and Adventure Seeking (TAS)
3
Experience Seeking (ES)
4 5
Boredom Susceptibility (BS) Disinhibition (DIS)
6
Attentional Impulsiveness (AI)
7 8
Motor Impulsiveness (MI) Non-planning Impulsiveness (NI)
Assesses self-reported dangerous driving behaviour amongst drivers Reflects individual’s propensity to indulge in sports or activities involving some physical danger or risk-taking Reflects individual’s tendency to seek new experiences, often reflected through non-conforming life style, having unconventional friends and travelling; Reflects aversion to monotonous, daily, dull or repetitive work, situations, events or people. Is a tendency to disinhibit one’s behaviour in the social sphere by drinking, partying and seeking variety in sexual partners. Reflects individual’s inability to focus attention reflecting cognitive instability which refers to making quick decisions, like thought insertions and racing thoughts Shows individual’s propensity to act without thinking, or to react at the spur of the moment Reflects impulsive reaction pertaining to self-control and cognitive complexity reflecting a lack of ‘‘futuring” or forethought
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thought insertions and racing thoughts; 2. Motor Impulsiveness (a = .59) assesses an individual’s propensity to act without thinking, or to react at the spur of the moment; 3. Non-planning Impulsiveness (a = .72) reflects an individual’s impulsive reaction pertaining to self-control and cognitive complexity which reflects a lack of ‘‘futuring” or forethought. These three factors of impulsiveness demonstrate mutual inter-correlations over 0.5 (Miller, Joseph, & Tudway, 2004). 3.3. Ethics The ethical standards of research were maintained. The participants were made aware of the purpose of the study. They were assured that the data collected from them will be used purely for research purpose and complete confidentiality will be maintained. Thereafter, written consent of all the participants was taken. 4. Results Descriptive statistics (mean and SD) for the overall sample, for males and females, are presented in Table 2. Correlation and stepwise multiple regression analysis were also performed. Stepwise regression used in this study is a combination of the forward and backward selection technique. Results of inter-correlations of the overall sample are shown in Table 3, amongst male drivers in Table 4 and amongst female drivers in Table 5. Results revealed significant positive correlations of thrill and adventure seeking, boredom susceptibility, experience-seeking, disinhibition, attentional impulsiveness, motor impulsiveness and non-planning impulsiveness with dangerous driving for the overall sample and also amongst male and female drivers separately. Tables 6–8 shows the results of regression analysis on the overall sample, amongst male and female drivers respectively. 5. Discussion Taking into consideration the hypothesis (H1) framed for the present study, dangerous driving was expected to be positively correlated with boredom susceptibility, experience-seeking, disinhibition, thrill and adventure seeking, attentional, motor and non-planning impulsiveness on the overall sample and amongst both groups of male and female drivers. The findings of the present study revealed positive correlation amongst all the variables assessed on the overall sample and also amongst groups of male and female drivers. This is in line with findings of the previous research studies done in the west
Table 2 Descriptive Statistics. OVERALL
DD BS TAS ES DIS AI MI NI N = 400
MALES
FEMALES
Mean
Std. deviation
Mean
Std. deviation
Mean
Std. deviation
62.42 3.09 5.54 3.93 3.43 17.98 24.19 25.47
17.29 1.98 2.34 1.78 2.26 3.93 4.88 4.53
64.78 3.46 5.65 4.12 3.94 18.08 24.38 25.66 N = 200
19.37 2.05 2.25 1.74 2.28 4.11 5.14 4.68
60.06 2.71 5.42 3.74 2.9 17.89 24 25.26 N = 200
14.6 1.84 2.43 1.81 2.13 3.74 4.6 4.37
VARIABLES-DD = Dangerous Driving, BS = Boredom Susceptibility, TAS = Thrill and Adventure Seeking, ES = Experience Seeking, DIS = Disinhibition, AI = Attentional Impulsiveness, MI = Motor Impulsiveness, NI = Non-planning Impulsiveness.
Table 3 Intercorrelations amongst various variables on overall sample.
DD BS TAS ES DIS AI MI NI
DD
BS
TAS
ES
DIS
AI
MI
NI
– .28** .23** .28** .40** .35** .36** .24**
– .05 .28** .43** .22** .19** .23**
– .26** .32** .13** .02 .02
– .44** .25** .18** .09
– .19** .14** .21**
– .33** .26**
– .09

VARIABLES-DD = Dangerous Driving, BS = Boredom Susceptibility, TAS = Thrill and Adventure Seeking, ES = Experience Seeking, DIS = Disinhibition, AI = Attentional Impulsiveness, MI = Motor Impulsiveness, NI = Non-planning Impulsiveness. ** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
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Table 4 Intercorrelations amongst various variables of male drivers.
DD BS TAS ES DIS AI MI NI
DD
BS
TAS
ES
DIS
AI
MI
NI
– .27** .23** .32** .43** .42** .44** .29**
– .06 .25** .40** .16* .20** .19**
– .23** .32** .13 .03 .14
– .41** .22** .22** .13
– .23** .15* .28**
– .34** .29**
– .07

VARIABLES- DD = Dangerous Driving, BS = Boredom Susceptibility, TAS = Thrill and Adventure Seeking, ES = Experience Seeking, DIS = Disinhibition, AI = Attentional Impulsiveness, MI = Motor Impulsiveness, NI = Non-planning Impulsiveness. ** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). * Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).
Table 5 Intercorrelations amongst various variables of female drivers.
DD BS TAS ES DIS AI MI NI
DD
BS
TAS
ES
DIS
AI
MI
NI
– .25** .22** .20** .31** .25** .25** .18*
– .10 .28** .42** .30** .17* .26**
– .28** .33** .13 .01 -.09
– .45** .29** .12 .04
– .16* .11 .12
– .32** .22**
– .10

VARIABLES- DD = Dangerous Driving, BS = Boredom Susceptibility, TAS = Thrill and Adventure Seeking, ES = Experience Seeking, DIS = Disinhibition, AI = Attentional Impulsiveness, MI = Motor Impulsiveness, NI = Non-planning Impulsiveness. ** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). * Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).
(Dahlen & White, 2006; Jonah, 1997). Therefore, it can be said that a similar pattern is found amongst Indian drivers as well. The positive relationship of components of sensation-seeking i.e. boredom susceptibility, experience-seeking, disinhibition, thrill and adventure seeking with dangerous driving, as per the finding of this study, can be explained by the theory of ‘‘Yerkes-Dodson law” (Teigen, 1994) which contends a strong relationship between arousal and performance. As per this law, an optimal level of arousal should be maintained in order to have an optimal performance throughout. Therefore, one’s performance increases with physiological or mental arousal, but only up to a certain level, after which it starts decreasing. Since the threshold level of arousal amongst young drivers is too high so in a bid to reach that point the performance or driving potential is adversely affected leaving more room for errors and lapses. As per the findings of this study, significant positive correlation was found between boredom susceptibility, experienceseeking, disinhibition, thrill and adventure seeking, motor, attentional, non-planning impulsiveness and dangerous driving amongst both groups of males and females. Sensation-seeking, earlier reckoned as a ’trait’ exclusive to males, as per the evolutionary psychologists, has been found to be prevalent amongst females as well (Cross, Cyrenne, & Brown, 2013). The social learning theorists believe that this change in trend is due to the role of genetically influenced traits that are being amplified or countered through cultural processes (Wood & Eagly, 2012). It can be presumed that this change is due to socialisation, emergence of cultural patterns and diminishing gender distinctness with both male and females showing equal participation in thrill seeking activities (Cross et al., 2013). Similar pattern is noticeable amongst Indian young females as well. The reason behind positive correlation between components of impulsiveness and dangerous driving can be understood by the fact that most of the young drivers engage in reckless and risky driving due to their impulsive actions (Smart, Vassallo, & Sanson, 2005). An impulsive action is found to bring a sense of vigour and freedom to the human experience (Dickman, 1990; Hansen & Breivik, 2001). Therefore, it is probable that young drivers may endorse impulsive action without much regard to the consequences, because they lack experience and desire freedom, thereby adversely affecting their individual and social well-being (Tangney, Baumeister, & Boone, 2004). In India, where there is a paucity of research from driving psychology perspective, the findings of this study reflects familiar patterns found in the West. The second hypothesis (H2) was also assessed. Here boredom susceptibility, experience seeking, disinhibition, thrill and adventure seeking, attentional, motor and non-planning impulsiveness were expected to significantly predict dangerous driving on the overall sample and amongst male and female drivers. The findings of the present study revealed that disinhibition shows maximum variance in prediction of dangerous driving on the overall sample. Consecutively, motor impulsiveness, attentional impulsiveness, non-planning impulsiveness and thrill and adventure seeking show decreasing variance. Amongst male drivers, motor impulsiveness shows maximum variance, towards dangerous driving, followed by disinhibition, attentional impulsiveness and non-planning impulsiveness. Whereas amongst female drivers, disinhibition, motor
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G.S. Assi / Transportation Research Part F 56 (2018) 444–452 Table 6 Stepwise Multiple Regression Equations for Dangerous driving on the overall sample. Model
Predictor variables
Unstandardized Coefficients
Standardized Coefficients
b
Std. Error
b
t
p
DR2
Adjusted R2
– .16** DF: 75.21 – – .10** DF: 51.86 – – – .04** DF: 20 – – – – .01** DF: 6.53 – – – – – .01** DF: 6.27
– .16** F:75.21 – – .25** F:68.34 – – – .29** F:54.40 – – – – .30** F:43 – – – – – .31** F:36.11
1
(Constant) DIS
51.99 3.05
1.44 .35
– .40
36.070 8.67
.00** .00**
2
(Constant) DIS MI
26.12 2.72 1.12
3.84 .33 .15
– .36 .315
6.80 8.15 7.20
.00** .00** .00**
3
(Constant) DIS MI AI
16.29 2.49 .89 .90
4.35 .33 .16 .20
– .33 .25 .20
3.75 7.52 5.58 4.47
.00** .00** .00** .00**
4
(Constant) DIS MI AI NI
7.74 2.35 .90 .78 .43
5.46 .33 .16 .20 .17
– .31 .25 .18 .11
1.42 7.05 5.66 3.83 2.56
.16 .00** .00** .00** .01
5
(Constant) DIS MI AI NI TAS
3.85 2.07 .92 .73 .46 .82
5.65 .35 .16 .20 .17 .33
– .27 .26 .17 .12 .11
.68 5.96 5.81 3.59 2.73 2.51
.50 .00** .00** .00** .01** .01**
VARIABLES-DD = Dangerous Driving, BS = Boredom Susceptibility, TAS = Thrill and Adventure Seeking, ES = Experience Seeking, DIS = Disinhibition, AI = Attentional Impulsiveness, MI = Motor Impulsiveness, NI = Non-planning Impulsiveness. a. Dependent Variable: UD. b. Unstandardized regression coefficient; SE standard error; b, standardized regression coefficient; t obtained t-value; p probability; R2 proportion variance explained. * Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed). ** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
Table 7 Stepwise Multiple Regression Equations for Dangerous driving amongst male drivers. Model
Predictor variables
Unstandardized coefficients
Standardized coefficients
b
Std. Error
b
t
p
DR 2
Adjusted R2
– .19** DF: 46.46 – – .14** DF: 40.94 – – – .05** DF: 15.95 – – – – .01* DF: 3.91
– .19** F:46.46 – – .32** F:48.34 – – – .37** F:40.02 – – – – .38** F:31.44
1
(Constant) MI
24.71 1.64
6.01 .24
– .44
4.11 6.82
.00** .00**
2
(Constant) MI DIS
17.15 1.44 3.21
5.61 .22 .50
– .38 .38
3.06 6.45 6.40
.00** .00** .00**
3
(Constant) MI DIS AI
4.93 1.15 2.84 1.15
6.21 .23 .49 .29
– .30 .33 .24
.794 5.06 5.77 4
.43 .00** .00** .00**
4
(Constant) MI DIS AI NI
-4.75 1.17 2.61 1.00 .49
7.87 .23 .50 .29 .25
– .310 .307 .213 .119
-.60 5.19 5.20 3.41 1.98
.55 .00** .00** .00** .05*
VARIABLES-DD = Dangerous Driving, BS = Boredom Susceptibility, TAS = Thrill and Adventure Seeking, ES = Experience Seeking, DIS = Disinhibition, AI = Attentional Impulsiveness, MI = Motor Impulsiveness, NI = Non-planning Impulsiveness. a. Dependent Variable: UD. b. Unstandardized regression coefficient; SE standard error; b, standardized regression coefficient; t obtained t-value; p probability; R2 proportion variance explained. * Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed). ** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
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Table 8 Stepwise multiple regression equations for dangerous driving amongst female drivers. Model
Predictor variables
Unstandardized coefficients
Standardized coefficients
b
Std. Error
b
t
p
DR2
Adjusted R2
– .10** DF: 21.34 – – .05** DF:11.25 – – – .02* DF:4.60
– .09** F:21.34 – – .14** F:16.85 – – – .15** F:12.97
1
(Constant) DIS
53.86 2.14
1.67 .46
– .31
32.34 4.62
.00** .00**
2
(Constant) DIS MI
37.44 1.97 0.71
5.16 .45 .21
– .29 .22
7.26 4.34 3.35
.00** .00** .00**
3
(Constant) DIS MI AI
30.89 1.85 0.56 0.58
5.95 .45 .22 .27
– .27 .18 .15
5.19 4.07 2.55 2.15
.00** .00** .01** .03*
VARIABLES- DD = Dangerous Driving, BS = Boredom Susceptibility, TAS = Thrill and Adventure Seeking, ES = Experience Seeking, DIS = Disinhibition, AI = Attentional Impulsiveness, MI = Motor Impulsiveness, NI = Non-planning Impulsiveness. Dependent Variable: UD. b unstandardized regression coefficient; SE standard error; b, standardized regression coefficient; t obtained t-value; p probability; R2 proportion variance explained. * Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed). ** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). a
impulsiveness and attentional impulsiveness were found as significant predictors of dangerous driving. Boredom susceptibility and experience seeking did not emerge as predictors in any of the groups assessed. Therefore, the hypothesis (H2) was partially supported. Several studies have supported sensation-seeking as a predictor of dangerous driving (Furnham & Saipe, 1993; Arnett, 1996; Greene, Krcmar, Walters, Rubin, & Hale, 2000). The present study also found disinhibition (component of sensation-seeking) as a significant predictor of dangerous driving. The reason for the same could be that driving context provides anonymity, a sense of freedom and a context to disinhibit. Anonymity helps in expression of negative emotions which are otherwise restricted or thwarted by the fear of identification which makes the drivers less restrained (Ellison, Govern, Petri, & Figler, 1995). This can also be the reason why disinhibition emerged as a major predictor amongst female drivers as well. The present study also found motor, attentional and non-planning impulsiveness as significant predictors of dangerous driving amongst overall sample and amongst male drivers and female drivers as well. However, amongst females, nonplanning impulsiveness failed to emerge as a significant predictor of dangerous driving. Several studies have found personality traits of impulsiveness, extroversion and social deviance amongst young and middle aged men as being associated with driver safety problems (Fine, 1963; Hansen, 1998). One of the probable reasons for impulsiveness as a predictor of dangerous driving could be that young drivers are more likely than old drivers to accept (or seek) risk while driving (Deery, 1999). Being young in age and lack of driving experience also makes them incapable to recognize the conditions that are risky while driving. Therefore they act instantaneously without forethought (Fox, 2012). Moreover, these young drivers are more probable to get distracted easily and are unable to cope with the multiple cognitive activities that are required while driving (Lam, 2002). As per the bounded rationality model, (Sivak, 2002) young people are already working within the realm of limited knowledge. For them additional tasks and information while driving might result in cognitive overload significantly undermining their driving skills, leading to the ’spillover effect’ and unintentionally engaging in lapses and errors while driving. The present study provided an insight into the role of certain personality variables and their impact on dangerous driving behaviour amongst young Indian drivers. The findings of this study suggest trends of psychological patterns concerning young drivers and minimal gender differences, similar to those found in the developed nations. Looking at the gravity of the situation in a developing country like India, where road crashes are assuming epidemic proportion, there is a dire need to effectively put in place stringent processes that impact the entire ecosystem of road safety, and have dynamic legislative system to adapt and upgrade the law and its provisions to conform to the changing driving realities. The road safety ecosystem has diverse stakeholders ranging from a road user to the parents, teachers, community, vehicle manufacturers, engineering departments, traffic police, transport department, the media, politicians, the legislature, the judiciary to name just a few. Collective intervention of all stakeholders can ensure better control and possible reduction in road fatalities and injuries (Assi, 2015). Understanding the psychological concerns of a road user and the factors influencing his/her behaviour pattern on roads is of paramount importance. Due to limited research in the Indian context, this study is an attempt to understand the psychological parameters affecting the behaviour of young drivers so that appropriate interventions targeting this vulnerable group of drivers can be made.
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6. Limitations There are certain limitations of this study with regard to the sampling technique used and data collection procedure adopted. Purposive sampling technique was used where only the sample which met the inclusion criteria was selected. This sample might not be the representative group of the population. On the contrary, random sampling technique could have provided a better representative of population. For future research, self-report measures along with the observational data and simulation studies can provide more in-depth information. With self-report measures, there is always a probability of a socially desirable response from participants, the effect of which can further be negated with the help of observational data and information retrieved from driving simulation studies. Limitation of reference material and research studies in this area from a Indian context serves a major drawback. Additional research in this area is required to gain a better understanding of behavioural issues of drivers in India. 7. Conclusion The present research aimed to study the relationship of components of sensation-seeking and impulsiveness with dangerous driving and confirmed a positive correlation between the variables studied. Dangerous driving was also found to be predicted by the sub-scales of sensation-seeking and impulsiveness on the overall sample and amongst male and female drivers. Amongst male drivers, motor impulsiveness showed maximum variance whereas amongst female drivers, disinhibition was found to precede other variables. This reveals that the variables studied have a significant association with dangerous driving amongst young population of drivers and cautions us towards an early intervention. Further in depth study, where standardized questionnaires could be supplemented by observation and driving simulation studies, could provide a comprehensive picture on the driving behaviour of young population of drivers. Acknowledgement I am highly grateful to my research supervisor Professor Seema Vinayak, Department of Psychology, Panjab University, Chandigarh for supporting me in this new area of research in India. Appendix A. Supplementary material Supplementary data associated with this article can be found, in the online version, at https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trf.2018. 05.016. References Arnett, J. J. (1996). Sensation-seeking, aggressiveness, and adolescent reckless behaviour. Personality and Individual Differences, 20(6), 693–702. Assi, G. (2015). Role of driving anger, vengeance, boredom proneness and sensation-seeking in propensity towards unsafe driving (unpublished doctoral dissertation). Chandigarh, India: Panjab University. Basu, D., Verma, V. 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